In the United States, coaster brakes have long been the norm for kids bikes (not to mention the law for smaller bikes). Conventional wisdom has claimed that young kids don’t have the coordination required for hand brakes, and moreover, that they are downright dangerous.
Over the last few years, this mindset has begun to change. Parents have realized that coaster brakes can hinder learning, cause dangerous skidding, and add weight to already heavy kids bikes. Manufacturers of higher-end kids bikes have also started offering modification kits to allow parents to remove coaster brakes.
Here’s a comprehensive overview of the pros and cons of both coaster brakes and hand brakes, so whatever setup you choose, you can make an informed choice.
Any conversation about the coaster brake versus hand brake debate has to start with an overview of the law. U.S. regulations require manufacturers to outfit all “sidewalk bikes” with wheels sized 20” or less with a “foot brake” (aka coaster brake).
Fortunately, this law applies only to manufacturers/distributors, so if you as parent choose to modify the bike, there’s no problem with that. Many bike companies (like Woom) have begun skirting this law by selling after-market conversion kits that allow you to replace the coaster with a freewheel.
The Coaster Brake
A coaster brake (or foot brake) allows a child to stop by pedaling backward. This is unlike a regular freewheel which allows the cyclist to backpedal freely.
The primary rationale for including a coaster brake on kids bikes is that it requires relatively little coordination to operate it. This is not the case for a hand brake which absolutely requires some skill and coaching to use properly.
The initial downside of a coaster brake comes when teaching a child to ride a bike. Kids naturally pedal backward as well as forward.
With a coaster brake, however, they come to an immediate stop when backpedaling. This can be both dangerous and frustrating for a brand new rider.
Once a child has pedaling figured out, they may very well be just fine riding with a coaster brake on a sidewalk. Assuming that all kids on small bikes are just riding on the sidewalk, however, is a mistake. Many parents are looking for bikes that are suitable for riding on singletrack or at the bike park.
A coaster brake becomes increasingly challenging on hills and off-road. Coaster brakes are either off or on; there is no modulation.
This causes skidding and potential crashes particularly when riding on dirt or large hills. On a mountain bike trail or at a skills park challenges such as rocks often require the rider to backpedal—something that you can’t do with a coaster.
Finally, coaster brakes are pretty heavy. They can add significant weight to a child’s bike.
When you consider that a kid’s bike is already close to half of their body weight, any place where you can save weight is worth considering. A bike outfitted with handbrakes rather than a coaster can save a couple pounds.
Coaster Brake Pros:
- Requires low levels of coordination; relatively easy to learn.
- Works well in all weather conditions.
Coaster Brake Cons:
- No modulation; skidding is common.
- No backpedaling—can make learning to pedal harder, and causes problems when doing more technical riding
Hand brakes consist of brake levers on both the right and left handlebars and generally control calipers on both the front and rear wheels. On larger and higher-end kids mountain bikes, the hand levers might actually control disc rotors instead of calipers.
The biggest problem with handbrakes is that they can be difficult for kids to use. Most brake levers are simply too large and too difficult for little hands to control.
Fortunately, more and more kids bikes are being outfitted with child-specific easy-to-pull, easy-to-reach levers. If you are going to put your child on a bike with only hand brakes and no coaster, make sure the levers are top-notch.
Many critics of hand brakes argue that you kids aren’t coordinated enough to use hand brakes. I don’t buy this argument. If given kid-appropriate levers (as mentioned above), kids as young as 2.5 can learn to use a handbrake.
I always encourage parents to start their child riding on a balance bike with a handbrake first. This allows them to learn to operate a hand brake at an early age, and promotes an easy transition to a pedal bike with handbrakes.
The biggest concern for handbrakes is that the child grabs a big handful of brake and goes over the handlebars. This is a very real concern, and means that if you put your child on a bike with handbrakes you need to spend the time building their skills.
Hand Brake Pros:
- Kids will have to learn to use hand brakes eventually; it’s best to learn early.
- Allows for modulation—helpful on hills and off-road.
- Ability to backpedal
Hand Brake Cons:
- Levers must be child-specific and high-quality in order to be effective and safe.
- Requires more skill and coaching than a coaster brake.
- Not as effective in wet conditions.
- A handful of front brake can send little riders over the handlebars.
A Hybrid – Using Both Coasters AND Hand Brakes
Many quality kids bikes are now being offered with both a coaster brake and handbrakes. If you are worried about your child only having handbrakes, then this may be an option that makes you feel comfortable. Using both means that there is no single point of failure, and kids have options to use what they are most comfortable with.
I highly recommend this option over utilizing only a coaster brake simply because all kids are eventually going to have to transition to a bicycle with handbrakes. Giving them the chance to practice and learn that skill at an early age will do nothing but help them.
SureStop Brakes From Guardian
One final option is choosing a Guardian Bike. This kids bike brand offers SureStop, a proprietary braking system.
These bikes have no coaster, and a handbrake. The single brake lever applies appropriate braking power to both the front and rear break, and helps avoid over-the-bars braking-related accidents.
We highly recommend this braking system for kids who are brand new to brakes, who have eye-hand coordiation issues, or have struggled with brakes in the past. We do NOT recommend it for kids who have already learned to safely operate dual handbrakes or who are mountain biking.
How Does A Coaster Brake Work?
The basic working principle of a coaster brake involves a series of internal mechanisms within the hub. When you pedal forward, the coaster brake operates like a freewheel, allowing the bicycle to move forward without any resistance. However, when you start pedaling backward, the coaster brake engages and slows down the rotation of the rear wheel, eventually bringing the bike to a stop.
Inside the coaster brake hub, there are usually four main components:
- Drive cog: This is the sprocket or gear that is connected to the pedals and is responsible for transferring the power from your pedaling to the rear wheel.
- Brake shoes: These are two metal or rubber pads that are pushed against the inner surface of the hub shell when the brake is engaged. The friction between the brake shoes and the hub shell creates the braking force.
- Brake arm: It is a lever that is connected to the brake shoes. When you pedal backward, the brake arm moves, pushing the brake shoes against the hub shell.
- Brake spring: This is a spring that helps to disengage the brake shoes from the hub shell when you stop pedaling backward. It allows the hub to rotate freely in the forward direction without engaging the brake.
When you pedal backward, the motion of the pedals causes the brake arm to rotate, pushing the brake shoes against the inside of the hub shell. The resulting friction slows down the rotation of the hub and the rear wheel, effectively braking the bike. When you stop pedaling backward, the brake spring pulls the brake shoes away from the hub shell, releasing the brake and allowing the bike to move forward freely again.
Types Of Hand Brakes On Kids Bikes
Most kids bikes have what we call v-brakes or rim brakes. They have two brake arms with pads that make contact with the rim of the wheel when the brake lever is squeezed. They are affordable, efficient under most conditions, and easy to maintain.
On larger kids bikes, more expensive bikes, and specialty bikes like kids mountain bikes, you might start to notice bikes with disc brakes. Disc brakes are more expensive but offer superior stopping power.
The bike on the left has v-brakes while the bike on the right has disc brakes.
There is no wrong option when choosing a bike with a coaster brake versus a hand brake. My advice would be to either (a) choose a bike with both options so that your child gets practice with a hand brake, or (b) for families that do a lot of cycling or who have a child interested in mountain biking or BMX, go for the hand-brake only option.
If you do choose to buy your child a bike with only a hand brake, make sure that the levers are both easy-to-reach and easy-to-pull. Also make sure that they are given proper coaching and instruction on how to use them. This option is best for kids who started riding on a balance bike and are already comfortable with a hand-brake.
Learn More About Choosing A Good Kids Bike
- Best Kids Bikes: How To Choose, Reviews, & More!
- The Ultimate Guide To Kids Bike Sizes (And Bike Size Chart)
The Rascals are a family of three. Kristen (mom), Blair (dad), and Parker (kiddo). We started Rascal Rides when Parker was born and we didn’t want to give up our passion for biking. As we learned, we shared. Over the years, we’ve tested hundreds of kids bikes, helmets, bike trailers, and more.
Kristen is a USA Cycling certified coach and loves to share her passion for biking with other families. Blair is a bike geek, mechanic, and mountain bike junkie. Parker is our resident tester and inspiration.
If you see us out on the trail, make sure to say hi!